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Quantifiers - (before nouns)


A quantifier, as its name implies, expresses quantity. Quantifiers can be a single word or a phrase and are used with nouns. They can be used with both a countable or an uncountable noun to express amount or quantity. (

Large quantities

a lot of / lots of / a lot / many / much / plenty


1) - I have a lot (lots of) of money [ both go before a noun (countable and uncountable)]

Do you have shoes?
2 )- Yes, I have a lot. [ A lot goes at the end of the sentence and does not go before a noun]

3) There are many students in my class. [many is used before countable nouns]

4) I don't have much time to study. [used before uncountable nouns]

Small quantities

a little / a few >>>>> some but not a lot ------------ UN POCO DE
very little / very few >>>>> not much / not many -------- POCO/POCA


1) My father has very little patience . (little used before uncountable nouns)

2) Do you want some sugar?
- Yes but only a little.

3) I have very few friends (few used before countable nouns)

4) In my town there are a few supermarkets.

Zero quantity

any / none


1) - I don't have any brothers ---- clase de some y any AQUI

2) How many sisters do you have?
- None [ for short answers only]

Prepositions of time (in, on, at)

We use:

Before parts of the day,, months, years, and seasons


  • Gustavo enjoys reading in the afternoon.
  • My wedding is going to be in August.
  • I started my blog in 1999.
  • I love going to the beach in summer.

Before days, and dates
  • The party will be on January 27th
  • Miguel's birthday is on Sunday
At is used with noon, night, midnight, midday, and with the time of day (also for the weekend but this is used in British English:
  • My father comes from work at noon.
  • My favorite TV program starts at 6 p.m.
  • I don't eat at night.

Other prepositions

Extended time

Other commons prepositions to express time are: by, from—to /from-until, during,(with)in, last, next, every.

  • The studied in that institute from January to (until) March. (Beginning in Januaryand ending in March.)
  • I was watching TV during the evening. (For some period of time in the evening.)
  • We should get married within a year. (No longer than a year.)
  • I went to a party last night (anoche)
  • I take a shower every morning (cada)

Giving advice and suggestion (como dar consejos/sugerencias en ingles)

There are several ways of giving advice but I will put the most common and useful.

Why don't you ...?
Use this to give light suggestions or advices

I want to travel to an interesting place.
- Why don't you go to Cusco.
I need to buy a good and cheap car
- Why don't you buy a Toyota

You can use the SECOND CONDITIONAL to give advices If I were you I would ...


My wife always treats me bad
- If I were you I would divorce her.
I have a Visa for the USA but I like my country
- If I were you, I would travel to USA and make money.

Should / ought to
We use these when our advice is light and not strong.
Should (S + should +verb + complement)

I feel tired
- You should go to bed,
I do not understand English
- You should study online at
Maria does not love Fernando
- She should tell me what she feels.

ought to (S+ ought to + verb + complement)

I got a 70% on my test
- You ought to start studying more.
I am getting fat.
- You ought to eat less.
I need money.
-Well, you ought to find a job.

* should es mas usado que ought to

Have to and Must Use these to give a strong advice or suggestions

I am bleeding.
- You must go to the hospital now.
I have lung problems
- You have to quit smoking
The bank sent me a letter and they might take my house
- You must pay the bank
I am driving without a license
- You have to get one before a police stops you

The Second Conditional [If (past) ... (would/could)] Hypothetical Situations

The second conditional syntax is:

If (past) .... would/could + verb
would/could + verb ... If (past)


If I had a million dollars I would travel all around the world.
If I saw Brat Pitt in the street I would faint (desmayarse)
I wouldn't call him if I were you.


When you use second conditional you can put the to be verb (were) with the Pronoun I

If I WERE you I would take a vacation

This is very common in 2nd conditional and I recommend using it.

We use second conditional to talk and express hypothetical cases. We use it to describe imaginary situations.

If I had a million dollars (I don't have a million dollars) I would buy a Ferrari (This is what I would do with the million dollars)


What would you do if you found a wallet with 10,000 dollars?
- I would take it to the police.

Would you travel if the air tickets were expensive?
- No, I wouldn't

COMPARISON (1st Conditional VS 2nd Conditional)

1st - If you study you will pass the test - CAUSE AND EFFECT
2nd- If Chris kissed me I would be so happy - Imaginary/hypothetical situation.

Nota del profe:
Solo apuntar que no olviden de usar el verbo en pasado con el if clause (oracion del if) y el would + verbo en el resultado.
Como lo entenderíamos en el español? En el ejemplo:

If I had a million dollars I would buy a Ferrari

Primero tienen que hacer la traducción pensando en el USO de la 2da Condicional. Esto es, es para situaciones hipoteticas así que la traducción seria Si tuviese (tuviera) 1 million de dolares me compraria un Ferrari. Recuerden de que las traducciones pueden varias pero lo importante es que el mensaje no se altera (El mensaje siendo que es una situación hipotetica).

First Conditional - [ if (present) ... will]

The 1st Conditional syntax is the following:

If (present tense) ... will (or can)
Situation >>>>>>>>> Result
will (or can)... If (present tense)
Result <<<<<<<< Situation


If you study you will pass the test.
If it rains there won't be a party
I will buy beer if you give me money.
Patty will not talk to him if he doesn't apologize
My father will be angry if I get drunk.

We use the first conditional to talk about a given SITUATION and its FUTURE RESULT. It can be understood as a CAUSE & EFFECT situation.


What will you do if you don't pass the test?
- I will have to repeat the whole book.

What will Sarah do if his boyfriend comes late again?
- She will probably leave him.
Remember to use FUTURE (will or going to) for the RESULT clause.



Les ruego a mis alumnos no basarse en la traducción para entender los condicionales en el Ingles. Aveces no es igual y esto les llevara a conclusiones. La mejor forma es entender su uso y adaptarlo al Español si es que gustan. Cuando hablen ingles y quieran usar los condicionales presten atención al uso y de allí usen la gramática correcta. Existen 1st, 2nd, 3rd y un Zero conditional asi que iremos paso a paso.

En el ejemplo:
If I study I will pass the test

Se entiende si es que estudio pasare el examen. Esto es una acción y un posible resultado en un futuro.

También quiero aprovechar para saludarlos y espero estén conmigo en este 2008. Cuidense.

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