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Cursos gratis: Elija su nivel

Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year's

Well, I will be visiting one of the new wonders and am very exited. I will spend Christmas and New Year's day there in the magnificent Macchu Picchu located in Cuzco, Peru. I will not be posting and will resume the English classes the first week of January.

I want to share this opportunity to send my best wishes to all my readers and hope all your goals will come true in 2008.

Feliz Navidad y un prospero Año Nuevo 2008

Bueno como ven me voy de viaje para fiestas y las clases continuaran en el mes de enero. Quiero agradecer a todos los que han visitado esta pagina y en especial a los que se han subscrito. He disfrutado compartiendo mis conocimientos y continuare haciendo lo mismo en el 2008.

Quisiera también aprovechar para avisar a mis lectores que por motivos de expansión de la pagina el nombre de estudiaingles cambiara a uno nuevo. Esto sucederá en el mes de enero y escribiré un post para que los que se han subscrito a estudiaingles se subscriban a la nueva pagina

Gracias por su comprension y que tengan unas lindas fiestas.

How to offer something in English

I will give some advices on how to offer something in English. There may be other ways but these are the most common and handy that I could think of.

Would you like ....?

What would you like to drink?
Would you like to go dancing?
Would you like some coffee?

- Use would like + to and infinitive to offer something.
Remember you can use some in questions only when you offer.
Would like is considered a formal way of offering something.

Do you want ... ?"

What do you want to do?
Where do you want to go?
Do you want some milk?

- Use want to to offer. It is considered informal and you can use it in any situation.

How about ...?

How about some cookies?
How about going to dance?
How about buying some chicken?

- Use how about to offer as well. It is used more for giving an additional offer.


Would you like some beer?
- No thanks.

How about some water?
- Sure

The person did not want beer and we gave an additional offer with how about.
If we use a "verb" after how about please use the (-ing) form (called the gerund)

ERROR >>> How about dance?

Correct >>> How about dancing?

Present Perfect ( Past affecting the present)

This is the third topic on present perfect. The other two topics are:

- Present Perfect (1) (Used to express experiences)
- Present perfect (2) (yet, already, just)

USE (3): We can use present perfect to describe actions that started in the past, affect the present, and may continue into the future.

To emphasize this use we can use for and since:

For: for a period of time (a year, three months, for hours etc)
Since: from an espcific moment in the past (since last year, since I was young, since February etc)

Remember the Syntax:

S + have / has + past participle + C

I have studied English for 2 years >>> I started studying two years ago, continue studying at the present time, and may continue in the future.

Maria has lived in Paris since 2002 >>. She moved to Paris in 2002, continues living there at the moment and may continue in the future.

More Examples:
I have worked for ABC company for five months.
My parents have lived in Japan since I was a child.
Maria has taught Spanish for nearly ten years.
John has been in Peru since April
I have worked on this page ( for 4 months.

Typical mistakes and errors.

DO NOT use present tense to express a past affecting the present,

ERROR : I live in Miami for 5 years ( REMEMBER: Present simple is used to express routines, habits and facts)

Nota: Favor de no traducir palabra por palabra ya que le traera problemas. Recuerden las reglas en ingles y de alli pueden entenderlo en Castellano.

ERROR : I am working for IBM since 2000. (REMEMBER: Present continuous is used for actions happening at the moment or an arranged future)


Entonces, usamos el presente perfecto para expresar situaciones y acciones que empezaron en el pasado, que afectan el presente y que pueda continuar en el futuro. Recuerden que en español esto no es así. Tengan cuidado pues ya están entrando a un terreno de ingles intermedio en donde tienen que acordarse y poner en uso las reglas de la gramática y no traducir palabra por palabra ya que esto le traerá problemas.

Future with will - Futuro con "will"


Positive sentences
S + [will + verb (infinitive)] + C

- Just add "not" => will not - won't

QW + [will + S + verb ]+ C

I will love you for always.
Maria won't go to the party.
France will be the next World Champion.
Will Fujimori go to jail?
When will the next earthquake be?
Tomorrow there is a party, I will get the beers.


I'll , he'll, she'll, it'll, we'll, you'll, they'll


We use will to express and talk about PROMISES, DECISIONS, PREDICTIONS andto OFFER help.

Promise = I'll never leave you darling!
Prediction= It'll rain later.
Offer= I'll carry the books for you.
Decisions = I will stop smoking.

Notas del "profe" :
El futuro con will es bastante sencillo pues todas las "personas" (yo, tu, ella... etc) van con la misma conjugacion.

Lo mas importante de esta lección es que sepan en que situaciones usar el "WILL"
Se usa el "will" cuando expresen una promesa, decisiones, predicciones y ofrecimientos

Promesa: I will always love you
Decisiones: Tomorrow, I will go to the mall and buy a TV.
Ofrecimientos: I will help you with that table.
Prediccion: Maria won't get married.

RECUERDEN que tengan cuidado al traducir. Siempre haganlo entendiendo el fundamento e uso en el ingles.
Hay veces que las traducciones pueden variar pero lo importante es que el uso de una oración se traduzca en el uso de esa oración en una situación similar de otra lengua.

Present Perfect (just , yet, already)

  • JUST - Using just with present perfect:

Use: Use just to express actions that have happened RECENTLY. Just goes after the auxiliary have/has and before the past participle

- Maria has just finished her homework. (not so long ago)
- They have just come from the supermarket.
- It has just started raining.

Para una clase con AUDIO y con explicaciones en español de cuando usar Present Perfect y JUST, vaya a la lección en línea a continuación:
  • Already
Use: We use "already" to express actions that have finished before the actions was expected to finish ( una accion que acaba anticipadamente)

- I have already done my homework.
- Jorge has already watched "Transformers" the movie.
- They've already read that book

  • Yet
Use: We use yet for negative sentences and questions. It is used for actions that you think has happened. It is used to express expectations. (es traducido como ya o aun)

- Have you eaten at "Friday's" yet? (you expect that the other person has already been to "Friday's")
- I haven't been to Europe yet. (But I expect to go there)
- Has Matilda been to New York yet?
- Have you studied for the test yet?
- Juan hasn't proposed to Jenny yet.

Present Perfect - (Experience)


S + have / has + past participle + C

He/she/it - has
I/we/you/they - have ---- (HAVE , HAS >>>> AUXILIARIES)

I have been to many countries.
Carla has worked for five different companies.
They have studied English and French

Some past participle forms (irregular verbs)

be-- --was/were---- been
see ----- saw ------ seen
go------went --------gone
write---wrote ------written
put ------put--------put

The past participle form of the regular verbs is the same that in the past

Walk - walked - walked
talk- talked- talked
study - studied - studied

REVIEW: If you do not know what are regular and irregular verbs then click here to review the past simple tense (regular ans irregular verbs)

Negative form

S + haven't/ hasn't + past participle + C

I haven't been to Mexico
Jorge hasn't eaten Peruvian ceviche.
They haven't traveled by plane.

Question Form:

QW + have / has + past participle +S + C

Have you ever been to Cusco?
Where have they studied English?
Has Anna ever danced regeaton?


We use present perfect to express and talk about experiences. By this we mean that we do care or want to say when something happened.

I have studied English >>> We do not say when, we just want to express that we have studied English some time in our life.

Ever: We use ever in questions to emphasis on experiences.
Have you ever been to Brazil? = Have you been to Brazil? (We put ever just to emphasis. It is not necessary but very common).

We use PAST SIMPLE if we say when we did something.

I went to Brazil in 1989.

ERROR : I have been to Brazil in 1989 >>> We CANNOT use Present Perfect when we focus on a definite point in the past.

Remember: If we focus on a definite point in the past we USE PAST SIMPLE. If we want to express experience we use PRESENT PERFECT.

Past Continuous (Syntax and USE)

S + [ was / were + -ing] + C

- I was studying
- Carlos was playing video games at Henry's house.
- They were having breakfast

Just add "not" or contract it with the verb to be in the past : wasn't / weren't

- I wasn't watching the football game. I was doing my homework.
- My mother (she) wasn't cooking.
- My brothers (they) weren't dancing at the party.


QW +[ was / were + S + -ing] + C

- Where was John sleeping?
- What were you doing at 6:00pm?
- Who was Patty talking to?

USE: We use past continuous to describe actions that were in progress in the past.
{ estaban, estuve, estuvieron etc... - ando , - endo}

Slangs - Jergas en ingles (e-j)

Jergas - Lista de la (a-d)

: great; excellent. (Maldito - chevere - de la PM)
"Your car is really evil!"

eyepopper: something or someone visibly astounding.
"Wow, that girl is truly an eyepopper!"

: fabulous.
" is really fab!"

face-off: confrontation.
"I think it's time we had a face-off."

fart [offensive]: to expel intestinal gas (Pedo -Pedar)
"It's embarrassing to fart on the first date."

flashback: sudden memory. (un recuerdo)
"In Little Tokyo I had a flashback to my days living in Japan."

flick: movie.
"Let's go out tonight and watch a flick."

fox: attractive, alluring person.
"Is it true that Brad Pitt is a fox?"

freebie: something that does not cost money. (gratis - gratel)
"My trip to New York was a freebie."

French kiss [possibly offensive]: kissing with the tongue. (Beso con lengua)
"Dave's dog is always trying to French kiss him!"

geek: someone who works too hard, is more intelligent than usual, and is slightly unattractive.
"Bill Gates is kind of a geek."

get it: to understand something.
"Sorry, but I just don't get it."

glitch: flaw. (una falla)
"There must be a glitch in this softwware."

go bananas: go slightly mad. (volverse loco)
"This project is causing me to go bananas!"

goof (1): a silly and foolish person. (tonto - tontin)
"What a goof you are!"

goof (2): make a mistake.
I really goofed on the test today."

: silly.
"Kids always make me feel goofy!"

grand: one thousand dollars.
"He's making over a hundred grand a year!"

grass: marijuana.
"Have you ever smoked grass?"

guts : courage. (coraje)
"It took a lot of guts to ask his boss for a raise."

hairy: difficult; dangerous.
"The steep and windy road was really hairy."

: a love bite on the skin. (Chupeton - usualmente en el cuello)
"Wow! Is that a hickey on your neck?"

hooker [possibly offensive]: prostitute.
"You'll find a lot of hookers in the red light district."

horny [possibly offensive]
: sexually stimulated; in the mood for sex.
"Red wine seems to make my boyfriend horny. "

hot (1): popular.
"Brad Pitt is really hot now."

hot (2): sexy.
"Wow! Cindy Crawford is really hot!"

: really big.
"American supermarkets are humungous."

hyper: overly excited.
"Children often get hyper when they are tired."

icky: unpleasant.
"The food is really icky in the school cafeteria."

: identification.
"If you want to order a beer, you'll need your I.D."

I'm outta here
: I'm leaving; I'm departing.
"Sorry, but I'm outta here, dude."

: fashionable.
"Ray-Ban sunglasses are really in now."

jack around [possibly offensive]: waste time.
"Will you please stop jacking around?

jillion: an immense number.
"Do you really have a jillion problems?"

: toilet.
"Where's the john?"

Lista de pronombres - List of pronouns

The following are referred to people object and things
Nota: Estos se refieren a personas u objetos (Sustantivos)

Subject Pronouns

  • I

  • you

  • he

  • she

  • it

  • we

  • you

  • they

Object Pronouns

  • me

  • you

  • him

  • her

  • it

  • us

  • you

  • them

Reflexive Pronouns

  • myself

  • yourself

  • himself

  • herself

  • itself

  • ourselves

  • youselves

  • themselves


These following adjectives refer to POSSESSIONS.

Estos se refieren a poseciones. NO CONFUNDIR

Possessive Adjectives

  • my

  • your

  • his

  • her

  • its

  • our

  • your

  • their

Possessive Pronouns

  • mine

  • yours

  • his

  • hers

  • its

  • ours

  • your

  • theirs

Reflexive Pronouns

These pronouns are :

myself - yourself - himself
herself- itself - ourselves
yourselves - themselves

We use the reflexive pronouns when the subject is the same as the object.

For example:
I hit myself (the subject I is the same as the object)


I hit I
I hit me

Usamos el reflexive pronoun cuando el objeto es igual al sujeto. Muchas veces se traduce como yo mismo, ella misma, ellos mismos etc pero también puede ser tácito como :

I hit myself (Me lastime; tácito yo mismo)
She killed herself (Se mato (tácito ella misma)

You can use reflexive pronouns to describe things that you do without help (algo que haces sin ayuda)

I did my homework (by) myself.
Maria cooked (by) herself.

Cuando lo usen para describir acciones que realizan sin ayuda pueden poner el by antes del reflexive pronoun. Esto es mas común en ingles americano pero es opcional.

Si no has estudiado los object y subject pronouns te recomiendo que los repaces para un mejor entendimiento.


This / That - These / Those

Demonstrative pronouns (this - these / that - those)

Singular (this & that)

This is used to point at something close to you (this es esto / esta)

This is my laptop (I am touching it)
This radio does not work.

That is used to point at something far from you (that es eso / esa)

That jacket is not mine.
That is the best book I have read.

Plural (These / Those)

These (estos - estas) is the plural of this and it is used for close objects or people which are close

These are my favorite shoes.
These books are very old.

Those (esos - esas) is the plural of that and it is used for close objects or people which are far

Those are not my socks.
Those pictures are excellent.

"Used to"

Used to is used to describe routines and habits in the past.

I used to smoke when I was at the University.
Gary used to be fat when he was a little boy.
What did you use to do after school?
I used to play soccer all afternoon.
I didn't use to study for my tests.
Max didn't use to drink, now he drinks too much!


To describe current habits or routines WE USE PRESENT SIMPLE . Please do not use "Use to" in present.

INCORRECT : I use to smoke
CORRECT : I smoke

  • Used to is to describe past routines and also do not confuse with the verb "USE"
I always use my laptop
I never use my husband's things
Mariela uses her credit card on the internet to buy clothes

  • To be + used to + - ing = "Estar acostumbrado" ( ADVANCED STUDENTS!)
I am used to waking up early
Carlos is used to eating very spicy food.
Juan isn't used to Lima's terrible weather
Are you used to dancing?

Remember to use the verb to be before used to and to use the -ing form after the used to.

Ok, Profesor Virtual al rescate. Esto puede ser confuso así que vayamos por partes.

Used to = Solía, Solían, Solíamos etc
Por ende, Used to es para expresar rutinas en el pasado

The verb USE or to use = USAR y todas sus variantes

Present (Verb USE)
I use the computer a lot to write my ESL classes.
I used your radio yesterday and broke it!

Este verbo es un verbo mas y puede usarse en distintos tiempo. No es lo mismo el pasado "used" que el "used to"
Son completamente distintos.

Acá va la información extra:
Existe la formulación (TO BE + Use(d) to+ - ing) y esto es tambien distinto. Esto es para expresar que uno esta acostumbrado.

I am used to going out and have fun with my friends
= Estoy acostumbrado a salir y divertirme con mis amigos

Maria is used to watching tv untill very late
= Maria esta acostumbrada a ver Tele hasta muy tarde

Como ven esta ultima forma "Estar acostumbrado" va con el verbo TO BE antes

Así que tengan cuidado

Used to = Solía
Verbo Use = usar
to be + used to + - ing = Estar acostumbrado

Se que toma es un poco complejo pero la practica hace al maestro.

Possessive pronouns

Possessive Pronouns :mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs
These are used to describe possession and DO NOT confuse with possesive adjectives

my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their
Both refer to possession but the POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS do not need a noun after them.

For example:

Whose radio is that? (Whose = De quien)

It is mine. or It is my radio ---------- Incorrect > It is my. (My necesita de un NOUN)

Is that Pedro's or Sally's car?

It is hers. or It is her car ------------ Incorrect > It is her (Her necesita de un NOUN)

Possessive Pronous Vs Possessive Adjectives


  • my

  • your

  • his

  • her

  • its

  • our

  • your

  • their






  • mine

  • yours

  • his

  • hers

  • its

  • ours

  • yours

  • theirs


No se confundan con estas dos formas de mostrar una posesión. Los posesivos adjetivos REQUIEREN de un sustantivo. MY BOOK, HER PENCIL etc. Es decir: My = mi, her = su de ella, his = su de el etc...

Los posesivos ppronouns no necesitan de un sustantivo (NOUN) This is mine. Es decir : Mine = Mio, = Hers = suyo de ella, Ours = nuestro etc..

Hago lo posible para no traducir porque creo que es mejor y mas fácil aprender las reglas en ingles y de allí si ustedes quieren traducirlo siempre y cuando entiendan el fundamento.

Present Continuous for future plans or arrangements

The present continous is used as we duscussed for activities happening at the moment (CLICK AQUI si no sabes como formar oraciones con presente continuous).

This tense can also be used to describe events or plans in the future that are arranged or fixed.
Common expressions where we use present continuous for future arrangements are:

- tonight, next month (year,week) tomorrow, this weekend etc.


My plane is arriving tonight at about 8:30 pm.
My parents are leaving town tomorrow.
Jack isn't meeting with us next weekend.

Remember: All these sentences can be used with "going to". We use present continuous to simplify the sentence but it is optional

My plane is arriving tonight at about 8:30 pm = My plane is going to arrive tonight at about 8:30.

There is no difference!


What are you doing later?
I am playing soccer.

Is your friend coming to eat with us in the afternoon?
Yes, he is.

NOTA: No quiero que se confundan con este uso del presente continuous. Es una opción en el ingles y es igual que el futuro con going to. Presente continuous solo se puede entender como un futuro si es que hay una frase especifica de un tiempo en el futuro (como tonight, tomorrow etc) Si es que no hay estas phrases se recomienda usar el going to para ser mas claros. Ustedes tienen esta opción de usar cual deseen pero es necesario saber que el presente continuous también puede ser usado como un futuro.

Future tense "going to" (Futuro con going to)

We use "going to" to talk about plans. Plans are scheduled and fixed.


S +[ to be + going to + verb (simple form)] + C
Alex is going to travel next week
My father is going to visit us next summer
My children aren't going to do their homework.
Remember that going to is used with the verb to be and therefore we DO NOT use auxiliaries do or does.
QW +[ to be + SUBJECT +going to + verb ]+ C
Where are you going to study?
What are you going to do later?
What time is Brian going to come?
Nota: Usamos going to para hablar de planes en el futuro. "going to" muchas veces se traduce como " va a, voy a, vamos a etc)I am going to relax tonight - Voy a relajarme esta noche.
Recuerden que tambien el futuro se puede expresar con "Will" pero ya veremos mas adelante las diferencias.
Típicos errores con going to:
1) Muchos no ponen el verbo to be : I going to work - ERROR- (I am going to work - Correcto)
2) No utilicen el "don't, doesn't para negativos" I don't going to have lunch- ERROR ( I'm not going to have lunch - Correcto)
3) Recuerden de usar el going + el TO. My father is going have a shower- ERROR (My father is going to have a shower - Correcto)

Would you like? vs Do you like?

Some people confuse these a lot and a student sent me an email to explain the differences.

Do you like...?

Like is a verb that is used to describe preferences.
What kind of music do you like? (what is your preference?)
I like salsa. (in general)
What do you like doing?
I like dancing and singing (in general)

- When you express preference or speak in general you can use the infinitive with to or the gerund after the verb like.
Recuerden que para usar el verbo "like" para expresar preferencias o para hablar de gustos en general uno puede usar el verbo con "to" (to + infinitivo) o el gerundio (-ing)

I like to study - I like studying ( Both are possible { I personally prefer I like studying})

Would you like...?
In question it is used to make an invitation or to offer something to someone.

Would you like some coffee? (offer)
Yes, I would.
Would you like to go out with me tonight? (Invitation)
I would love to go out with you.

In affimative you can use would like to express a desire.
I would like to go to USA one day (a desire)

With would you like we DO NOT use gerund (-ing) - Cuando usan "would + like" para hacer invitaciones, ofrecer algo o para expresar deseos, no usar el gerundio (-ing) después de like.

I would like TO STUDY (Correct)
I would like studying (INCORRECT)

would like = want
To express, desire or to make an invitation we can use the verb to want too! (would like is more formal)
I would like some pizza = I want some pizza
Would you like to go dancing? = Do you want to go dancing
Does Maria want more water? = Would Maria like more water?

Recuerden que would like es gustaría y want es querer. En ingles son lo mismo pero would like es mas formal

Modal verbs Can and Could

In general, modal verbs syntax is the same for all:

Subject + [can/could+ verb(simple form)] + Complement

Negative sentences
Subject + [can't/couldn't+ verb(simple form)] + Complement

Question form
Question word + [Can/Could + verb (simple form)] + Complement

A) Ability ( Can : present , Could : past )

To express an ability we use can/could
- Sheila can play the guitar very well
- When I was a child I could play all day.
- Greg can't cook at all.
- Can you speak French?
- Pete could sing when he was in college.

Remember that when you talk about ability, can is used for present and could or past abilities

B)Possibility: (Can = Could)
When you express possibility can = could.
- I think it (can/could) rain.
- I (can/could) buy a new car because I have a good job.

C) Other uses:

  • Can - to ask permission: Can I go to the Bathroom? (May : formal)
  • Can / Could you bring me some Coffee? : Ask Favor (Pedir favores)
Nota: Tengan cuidado con traducir el can y could. Esto no ayudara pues como ven, dependiendo del uso, can puede ser igual a could o distinto. No basta decir que can es puedo y could podría. Recordar los usos y serán exitosos. Hagan esto en general pero especialmente con los modal verbs. Aprendan el uso siempre y después si quieren lo interpretan en español.

Prepositions of place (in/on/at)

In general, we use:
at for a point (en un punto)
in for an enclosed (espacio cerrado)
on for a surface (sobre la superficie)

at used before :
- general locations, the airport, home, night, a bus stop, a party, the station
- times e.g. 6:35, quarter to five etc

in used before:
- countries, rooms
- months, seasons (winter, summer), years

at used before:
- transport (plane,, a bus, etc)
- over a surface(on the floor, wall, shelf)
- days and dates

Exceptions: These always go together: (estos siempre van juntos)
at home----------in a car--------------on a bus
at work-----------in a taxi--------------on a train
at school----------in a helicopter---------on a plane
at university------in a boat-------------on a ship
at college---------in a lift (elevator)-----on a bicycle, on a motorbike
at the bottom-----in the sky------------on the radio, on television
at the side--------in a row-------------on the left, on the right

Look at these examples:
Jane is waiting for you at the bus stop.
The shop is at the end of the street.
My plane stopped at Dubai and Hanoi and arrived in Bangkok two hours late.
When will you arrive at the office?
Do you work in an office?
I have a meeting in New York.
Do you live in Japan?
Jupiter is in the Solar System.
The author's name is on the cover of the book.
There are no prices on this menu.
You are standing on my foot.
There was a "no smoking" sign on the wall.
I live on the 7th floor at 21 Oxford Street in London

El problema de estas preposiciones es que la traducción muchas veces de in/on/at es "en" y en ciertos casos uno puede elejir "in" o "at"Si uno dice "Estoy en el banco" ¿como es que lo dice en ingles? Bueno uno tiene solo dos opciones pues "on" es sobre la superficie. "At" siempre se refiere a una localizacion general y "in" es específicamente dentro de una edificio. Entonces si uno dice "I" am at the bank" es en general pero "I am in the bank" quieres especificar que uno esta dentro de el edificio. Como ven uno puede decir los dos siempre y cuando no este en la lista de excepciones.

Questions words (most popular)

Question words are used to ask about specific qualities, times, places, people, etc. They are different from yes / no questions (Do you live in France?). This chart provides question words, the use and example sentences. Study the question words, understand the uses and then look at the examples. Try to think of a few examples of your own. At the end, take the on the next page testing question words.

Who (quien / quienes)
Use: Asking about people
Who do you like?Who studies Russian?

What (que / cual)
Use: Asking about things or activities
What does he do at weekends? What is that?

What kind of / type of (que tipo/clase de)
Use: Asking about specific things or characteristics
What type of car do you drive? What kind of person is he?

What time (a que hora)
Use: Asking for a specific time
What time is it? What time does the show begin?

What... like (como - para describir- como estuvo el clima, como es Maria)
Use: Asking about characteristics
What was the weather like? What is Mary like?

Use: Asking about general or specific times
When do you like going out? When does the bus leave?

Use: Asking about places
Where do you live? Where did you go on vacation?

How (como)
Use: Combined with many words to ask questions about specific characteristics, qualities, quantities, etc. For example: How much - cuanto-(price, quantity), How long -para preguntar por duracion de tiempo (length), How often - con que frecuencia- (frequency)
How often do you go to the movies? How long was the film? -How much does it cost?

Which (cual/cuales/que)
Use: Asking to specify a thing or person from a number of things or people
Which book did you buy? Which boy won the race?

Why -(porque)
Why did you leave me?

Whose - (de quien)
Whose book is this? - de quien es este libro

Los question words se utilizan en pregunta y nada va antes del question words en preguntas. Esto se ve en la forma

QW + A - S- V + C (verbos que no son to be ) QW- verb to be - S + C (para verbos to be)

Where do you study?
--QW--A--S---V (C - complement es opcional)

Where is your favorite actor?
--QW--tobe------------S (C - complement es opcional)

Esto quiere decir que si en castellano tenemos la pregunta ¿Para que es esto? en ingles uno no puede poner for primero
For what is this? (ERROR)
What is this for? (CORRECTO)

Primero va el QW y si hay alguna proposición que va antes en el castellano en el ingles lo ponemos al final de la oración
Acaso nunca se han preguntado por que ¿De donde eres? = Where are you from?
Es por las razones expuestas en las que los Question Words son los que van al comienzo. Los Q.W no son necesarios. Sino hay question words la respuesta es un yes/ no answer.
Do you like mangos? Yes, I do - No, I don't
En cambio cuando hay QW's la respuesta es una oración.

Where do you live? I live in Paris.

Adverbs of Frequency

Use simple present with adverbs of frequency to talk about things that are true in general, or things you do as habits and routines.

Adverbs of frequency
never- hardly ever - rarely - occasionaly sometimes -usually-always

Other adverbs:
seldom = rarely ----- often / generally = usually

Position of adverbs of frequency:
In general they go between the subject and the verb
- They always come to class
- He hardly ever asks questions in class.
- Mary never has milk for breakfast (* el verbo has puede ser para comer o tomar)

With the verb to be place the adverb after the verb
- Mary is rarely late for classes.
- I am usually sad when I argue with my wife.

*Sometimes, often and frequently may go at the beginning of the sentences. (*estos pueden ir al comienzo de las oraciones)
- Sometimes I go to eat at McDonalds.

Possessive Adjectives

Clases de ingles (Pronombres - possessive adjectives)

The possessive adjectives are the following:

my, your, his, her, its , our, your, their
These are used to talk about possession. The possessive adjectives need a NOUN (see the pronouns and nouns link in archivos)
my (mi)
your (tu)
his (su- de el)
her (su- de ella)
its (su de objecto) house (NOUN) * Se requiere de un sustantivo (objecto, persona, animal)
your (su de ustedes)
their (su de ellos)
our (nuestro)
I studied with my brother.
I wanted to go to his apartment
Did you see their car?
Our food is the best in the world.

ERROR This book is my. My necesita de un sustantivo (my book, my house)

No confundir los possessive adjectives con los object pronouns: me, him, her, it, us, you, them. Especialmente con her que esta en los dos grupos pero que puede ser ella o su de ella depende del contexto.

I went to the party with her. (ella) - Fui a la fiesta con ella
I didn't like her house (su - de ella) - No me gusto su casa

Jergas comunes en ingles a - d (SLANGS)

La siguiente es una lista de algunas jergas populares de USA. Se agradece la colaboración de ESL cafe. Algunas pueden ser ofensivas.

Lista de American English Slangs (A-D)

airhead: stupid person.
"Believe it or not, Dave can sometimes act like an airhead!"
ass (2): an unworthy and hated person.
"I cannot be friends when you act like an ass."
awesome: great and impressive.
"Macchu Picchu is truly awesome!"
baby boomer: a person born from the end of the Second World War until the early 1960s.
"Dave Sperling was born in 1961, so he's considered a baby boomer."
ball (1): a fun time.
"I really had a ball in my class."
ball [offensive] (2): a testicle.
"After getting kicked in the balls, his voice seemed much higher."
bang (1): a very powerful thing.
"Disneyland is really a bang!"
bang (2): a powerful effect.
"Japanese sake really has a bang!"
barf (1): vomit.
"My dog barfed all over the carpet."
barf (2): vomit.
"Don't step on the barf!"
barf-out: a displeasing person or affair.
"That restaurant was a real barf-out."
beat: tired.
"I'm really beat because I was awake all night."
biggie: something important.
"I was hoping to get my homework completed, but it's no biggie. "
biker: a motorcycle rider.
"Dave used to be a biker until he got into a serious motorcycle accident."
bitch [offensive] (1): a very unpleasant woman.
"My boss can be such a bitch sometimes."
bitch [offensive] (2): complain.
"Stop bitching and finish your homework!"
bitchy [offensive]: moody.
"I like my friend Steve, even though he can be really bitchy."
bod: body.
"Stalone has a great bod!"
bonkers; go bonkers: crazy.
"If Dave works too hard, he sometimes goes slightly bonkers!"
booze: alcohol.
"The ESL party was fun, even though there wasn't any booze."
boss: excellent; great.
"My teacher is the boss!"
brew (1): coffee.
"Every morning Dave needs a fresh cup of brew."
brew (2): beer.
"Do you want another brew, dude?"
B.S.: bullshit; lies.
"I'm tired of listening to your B.S."
bull: bullshit; lie.
"That's a bunch of bull!"
bullshit [offensive]: lie; dishonesty.
"I don't like people that bullshit me"
buns [possibly offensive]: the rear end; buttocks. => trasero
"Don't stare at my buns!"
cheesy: cheap; outmoded.
"Why are you wearing such cheesy clothes?" = huachafo - anticuado
chicken: coward.
"Don't be such a chicken!"
cool: excellent; superb.
"The party was totally cool!"
couch potato: a person who watches too much television.
"Why did I have to marry such a couch potato?"
crap [offensive] (1): something worthless.
"My furniture is a bunch of cheap crap."
crap [offensive] (2): excrement.
"Yuck! I stepped on dog crap!"
crap [offensive] (3): falsehoods and lies.
"I've had enough of your crap."
dirt: extremely bad person.
"My ex-boyfriend was dirt."
dirty: offensive; pornographic.
"Stop looking at the pictures in that dirty magazine!"
dorky: strange; peculiar.
"If you keep acting so dorky, you'll never get a girlfriend!"
dude: a male/ a guy/ a man
"That's really cool, dude!"
dynamite: powerful; excellent.
"Dave gave a dynamite presentation."

Object Pronouns

The object pronouns are the following
me - you- him - her - it - us - you- them

Do not confuse with Subject Pronouns
I - you - he - she - it - we - you - they

Is I = me? The answer is that it means the same but the rule is different.

¿Cual es la diferencia entre "I" y "me"? ¿Cual es la diferencia entre Subject pronouns y Object pronouns? Pues quiere decir lo mismo pero por regla es distinto. I es cuando va antes del verbo y me es cuando va después del verbo pero los dos se refieren a la primera persona "yo". Los subject pronouns realizan la acción y los object pronouns reciben la acción.

Mike loves Julia.
Who does the action? Who recieves the action?

Mike realiza la acción por eso esta antes del verbo "love" así que solo puede ser renombrado por el pronombre "I"Julia recibe la accion así que no puede ser renombrado por "she" sino por "her"

Therefore:> HE loves HER

I - you, he, she, it, we , you , they -------ACTION ----- >>> me, you, him, her, it, you, us, them

They -------went to the park----> with us
He ------studies------------------> with me
I------kissed----> her
Si tienes alguna pregunta de esta clase de ingles déjeme un comentario o escribe al email de la pagina. Estudiar y aprender ingles no te tiene que costar. Solo es cuestión de determinación. Saludos

Some / Any

Some and any must be understood in English and not translated

Some = any

some is for positive sentences (+)*
any is for negative sentences (-) and for Questions (?)

What does some/any mean?

Some/any is an unkown number or a portion of a whole.
Some = algunos , algun

This means that : I want some chicken is I want a portion of chicken.

Some and any is used in the PLURAL form

Some is used for positive declarative sentences (+)
Any is used for negative (-) and questions (?)

I have some friends - I don't have any houses
Do you have any brothers?
Are there any bathrooms at the mall?

*** Some can be used in questions only when you offer something
- Do you want some beer?
- Would you like some cookies?

Travel - Tourism (Vocabulary)

Airplane Travel
Airplane travel is one of the most common forms to transportation to get to overseas destinations, but making plane reservations and buying plane tickets are only the first steps. You need to know what to do and what to say once you arrive at the airport. Listen to the words below and consult a dictionary if you need a definition. Write a sample sentence for each word to learn how it is used in context. You can use the Internet to find such sentences.

aisle -aisle seat- baggage claim area- boarding area -boarding pass -carry-on luggage -cockpit-emergency exit -flight attendant-gate-lavatory -life jacket -metal detector-overhead-partment
oxygen mask -pilot -seat belt-security checkpoint-security officer -terminal-ticket counter -tray table -window seat -X-ray machine


Hotel Reservation
Enjoying your travel is much more than finding cheap airfare; you also have to find affordable hotel accommodations that provide the amenities you need and want, whether you are looking for a hotel in Las Vegas to a villa in Italy. Listen to the words below and consult a dictionary if you need a definition. Write a sample sentence for each word to learn how it is used in context. You can use the Internet to find such sentences.

Types of Accommodations
bed and breakfast - guesthouse- hotel -inn -resort -youth hostel


cable TV -check -check out -connecting room -continental breakfast -handicapped facilities -hot tub -indoor / outdoor heated pool -kitchen / kitchenette -queen-size bed / king-size bed -restaurant -rollaway bed -room rates -sitting area

book a hotel -call the front desk -cancel a reservation -make a reservation -order room service


There is/are & There was/were

Present Form

It is used to say that something exists.

There is is for singular

There is a chair in the living room.
These isn't a bathroom in the mall
Is there a computer in that classroom?

There are is for plural

There are (some,many) chairs.
There are (some, many) good teachers in that institute.
There aren't (any, many) apples in the fridge.
Are there (any, many) books on the desk?

* There is & there are = "hay" in spanish.

Past Form

It is used to say that something existed or took place

There was is for singular

There was a chair in the living room.
These wasn't a bathroom in the mall
Was there a computer in that classroom?

There were is for plural

There were (some,many) chairs.
There were (some, many) good teachers in that institute.
There weren't (any, many) apples in the fridge.
Were there (any, many) books on the desk?

* There was & there were = "hubo" , "hubieron" in spanish.

Ver clase de SOME y ANY

Past Simple (not "to be")

The verb form in past is only one form for all Persons (played)

It -------- played (past form of play) , ate (to eat) , went (to go)

The form of the verb to play in the past is played => -ed is added
When -ed is added these are called Regular Verbs

Click here to see a list of common Regular Verbs
Remember => Only add "ed" to form the past form to the regular verbs.

-Irregular Verbs are those verbs that fall outside the standard patterns of conjugation in the languages in which they occur.

to eat ---- ate
to sleep --- slept
to go ---- went

The past form is not a common pattern. We DO NOT add "ed". We need to learn these verbs with time and patience.
Click here to see a common list of irregular verbs

Examples (regular & irregular)

Lucy went to Lucho's house
Sally talked to Juan on the phone for hours.
Marisu visited Miami last year.
I ate too much pizza last night

Negative Form

In negative form with verbs that are not to be we use the auxiliary didn't.

I,you,he,she,it, we,they - didn't(did+not) + play (simple form)
Gabriela didn't go to the dentist.
Juan and Paolo didn't study because they went to the party.
They didn't travel to Spain for Christmas.
* Recuerden que cuando utilizen "didn't" el verbo no esta en la forma de pasado "played"
He didn't went (INCORRECTO) El auxiliar esta para ayudar al verbo recuerdenlo.
He didn't go (CORRECTO)
Question Form
You use the auxiliary "did" in question form when the verb is not to be
QW +Did + {I,you ... they} + C
Where did he sleep yesterday?
What did you do all night?
When did they travel?
What time did the program start?

Past Simple (Verb to be)

Past Simple (to be )

The to be in the past is was and was.

I / He/ She/ It - was ---------------- We/ You / They - were

Edgar was at the party with Lucy.
Gerrard and Kim were tired after they played soccer.
I was sick and I went to the hospital.

In negative form just add "not" (just like in present with to be ).
I/he/she/it - wasn't (was + not)
We/you/they - weren't (were + not)

I wasn't at the mall in the morning.
My parents weren't hungry when they went to the restaurant.
Charlie wasn't happy because his soccer team lost.

Question form
Was - he/she/it/I ???
Were -we/you/they???

Where were you yesterday?
What was the problem?
Why were they sad?
What time was the party?
Were your parents sick?

Present Continuous

Present Continuous Syntax

S + [to be + - ing form ] + C
The to be verb has to be in present form ( am / is / are) and according to the Subject (S) [he she it => is] . The -ing forl is added to the verb you want to use (playing , studying ...etc)
My father is working in his office.
Maria is cooking for all the family.
Claudio and Juan are playing soccer.
In negatives we DO NOT use the auxiliaries don't and doesn't. We just add not to the to be verb
My friends aren't dancing because they don't like salsa.
I am not swimming in that dirty pool.
My sister isn't riding her bicycle.
In questions we DO NOT use Do and Does.
Are you talking to Alfred?
What is Jack doing?
Where are you going?
Correct Use of the Present Continuous
It is used to describe an action that is happening at the moment.
Carla is writing a letter (RIGHT NOW)
Carla writes a letter ( USUALLY - ROUTINE)
* En el castellano uno puede usar presente simple para decir que algo pasa en el momento pero en Ingles no. Recuerden que presente simple is para rutinas y habitos.
What are you doing? (Present Continous)
I am eating.
What do you do? (Present Simple)
I am a teacher.

Present Simple (USE) - Uso correcto del presente simple

Ok, ya vimos la parte gramatica del presente simple pero eso es solo la sintaxis. Esto no nos sirve para usarlo en conversaciones. Veamos cuando y en que circunstancias se usa el presente simple.

Use of Present Simple (PS)

We use PS when we want to express our:
- Habits
- Routines
- Facts


*Es un error muy comun usar PS para decir que se esta haciendo ahora. Esto es porque en Castellano si se puede.

When do we use Present Simple?

To describe repeated actions or habits :
I get up at seven every morning

To talk about things that are always or generally true :
The sun sets in the west

To describe a permanent situation or a condition with no definite start or finish but which is true now :
We live in London

With adverbs of frequency such as always, usually, …
She often studies in the library

With time expressions such as every day/ week/ year, in the morning/ afternoon/ evening and at night:
I go to the gym once a week

To express future meaning with actions and events that are part of a fixed timetable:
The train leaves at 8’30

Tipicos Errores en Presente simple:
Algunos se enamoran de el verbo To Be y no lo sueltan. RECUERDEN QUE EL VERBO TO BE ES UN VERBO EN INGLES.
Es decir, si quieres decir => Yo vivo en Madrid no se dice I'm live in Madrid. Se dice I live in Madrid.
Recuerden S + V + C
Solo un verbo por vez
Maria is plays with his brother (X)
Maria es juega??????
Maria es o juega .... Depende del contexto
Video Review

Present Simple (Action verbs negative and questions)

A verb can have two forms in positive (play/plays). In negative and question the form is only the simple form (play) because of the AUXILIARIES.

Auxiliaries (Do / Does --- don't / doesn't)
Do and does for questions and don't and doesn't for negatives.

Recuerden que auxiliares ayudaran al verbo; es decir, el verbo no se conjugara cuando esten los auxiliares.

Negative form:

He / She / It --- doesn't (does + not) + verb in simple form {play}
I / We / You / They ---- don't (do + not) + verb in simple form {run}

* Como vemos, el verbo no se conjuga pero el "auxiliary" si

(+) I live in Surco -------------------- (-) I don't live in Lima
(+) Gianina works in Paris ----------- (-) She doesn't work in Italy
(+)My Parents study French -------- (-) They don't study Spanish

* Si tenemos, " Mi hermana no quiere pizza" Entonces como se dice querer en ingles? => to want
entonces => My sister doesn't want pizza.

Question form:

In question forms (in present tense) we use the auxiliaries DO and DOES

Does (he/she/it) simple form {work} all day?
Do (you/they/I) simple form {play} the guitar?

(+) I live in Surco -------------------- (-) Do you live in Surco?
(+) Gianina cooks well --------------- (-) Does Gianina cook well?
(+) My brothers play chess---------- (-) Do they play chess?

Also we can put a Question Word before the auxiliary. This gives us the following order:

QW + [ A + S+ V] + C
Where do you work?
When does Carlos come from work?
How many students does Miguel have?
When do you have a shower?

When do we use Present Simple?

To describe repeated actions or habits : I get up at seven every morning

To talk about things that are always or generally true : The sun sets in the west

To describe a permanent situation or a condition with no definite start or finish but which is true now : We live in London

With adverbs of frequency such as always, usually, … She often studies in the library

With time expressions such as every day/ week/ year, in the morning/ afternoon/ evening and at night: I go to the gym once a week

To express future meaning with actions and events that are part of a fixed timetable: The train leaves at 8’30

Present Simple (Action Verbs)

Bueno ya vimos presente simple con el verbo to be. Ahora veamoslo con los action verbs

Action verbs are all the verbs that are not to be verbs, (verbos que no son ser o estar) for instance: play, run, go, study, work ... etc

Positve sentences:

Each verb has 2 conjugations in the simple present: one without to and one adding "s".
to play -------- play / plays
to study ------ study / studies
to wrtie------- write / writes
to go ---------go / goes

Now which pronouns go with the "s" form?
Remember the to be form? Which goes with is? YES! he she it.

So => he, she, it go with the "s" form and I, you, we, they with the simple form.

Miguel watches tv everyday => He watches
My parents live in Lima => They live
I like dancing

She / he / it = "s" form (wants, play, goes, sleeps, eats ... etc)
I/we/you/they= simple form (want, play, go, sleep, eat ... etc)

You can make any positive sentence now. Suppose you want to say : " Mi mama quiere pizza"
Go to the dictionary what is "querer" en ingles => to want
My mother wants pizza => why wants? because my mother = she.

Notas del profesor:

Como ven las conjugaciones de los verbos son solo 2 : Una con "s" y la otra sin "s". Esto debería ser mas fácil pues en español tenemos :

Verbo Jugar

Yo - Juego
Tu - juegas
Nosotros/nosotras - jugamos >>>>En ingles : PLAY (play/plays) He She it > Plays We, you they > play
El ella usted - juega
ellos ellas ustedes - juegan
vosotros/vosotras- jugáis

Recuerden de ponerle la "s" cuando corresponda a la tercera persona singular.

My mother cooks everyday | My father works at night | My sister always studies

Negative Structure:

He / she / it + doesn't + infinitive (work)
In negative we need AUXILIARIES (don't and doesn't)
I / we / you / they + don't + infinitive (play)


+ Maria plays tennis every morning
- Maria doesn't play tennis

+ Juan works for a very important company.
- Juan doesn't work.

+ My parents live in France
- My parents (they) don't live in France.

+ I like to study English.
- I don't like to study English


REMEMBER: We do NOT use don't and doesn't with THE TO BE VERB

+ Patty is my sister
- She ISN'T my sister.

Notas del profesor:

Como ven las conjugaciones de los verbos en negativo son solo 2 :

doesn't + el verbo infinitivo | don't + el verbo infinitivo.

EL don't y el doesn't son auxiliares. Es decir, ayudan a los verbos (QUE NO SEAN TO BE).

Por ejemplo.

+ My father works for IBM.
- My father doesn't work for IBM

>>> Vemos que cuando se usa el doesn't ya no se le pone la "s" a el verbo (work). Esto es porque esta el auxiliar y le ayuda. En otras palabras, cuando pongan el negativo a verbos en presente simple que no sean to be, el que se conjuga son los verbos auxiliares (don't and doesn't) y no el verbo en si.


Question structure

DO + I / you / they / we
<<<<<<<+>>>>>>>Infinitive (play, work, study)
DOES + he / she / it


(+) Maria cooks in the afternoons
(-) Maria doesn't cook in the afternoons
(?) When does Maria cook?


(+) Juan has lunch at 12:30.
(-) Juan doesn't have lunch at 12:30.
(?) Does Juan have lunch at 12:30?

(+) You play soccer very well.
(-) You don't play soccer very well.
(?) Do you play play soccer very well?

(+) My friends like dancing.
(-) They don't like dancing
(?) Do they like dancing?


¿Cuando uso do and does?

- Se usa do en does en preguntas y en negativos (don't / doesn't) en el present simple siempre y cuando no sean verbos to be.

¿Cuando pongo la "s" en los verbos?

- Se le agrega la "s" cuando formen verbos en positivo en el present simple con verbos que no sean to be y que el sujeto sea la 3ra persona singular (HE, SHE, IT)

¿Que no sea to be? ¿A que te refieres?

- El verbo to be es ser o estar. Cuando utilizes estos 2 verbos en el present simple no se utiliza los auxiliares do y does. El verbo to be es mas simple pues solo se le agrega el NOT para negativo y para preguntas se invierte el verbo con el sujeto:

She is pretty ----- She is NOT pretty -------- Is she pretty?

Los verbos que no son to be pues son todos aquellos que no son ser y estar (work, smoke, play, sleep.... ETC ETC)

Ver clase del present simple con el verbo to be

¿Cuando utilizo el present simple?

- Para describir rutinas, hábito, hechos (water boils at 100 degress celcious - el agua hierve a 100), y cosas permanentes. El present simple no se utiliza para describir cosas que pasan en el momento.

Ver clase del USO de Simple Present

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