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Present Perfect - (Experience)


S + have / has + past participle + C

He/she/it - has
I/we/you/they - have ---- (HAVE , HAS >>>> AUXILIARIES)

I have been to many countries.
Carla has worked for five different companies.
They have studied English and French

Some past participle forms (irregular verbs)

be-- --was/were---- been
see ----- saw ------ seen
go------went --------gone
write---wrote ------written
put ------put--------put

The past participle form of the regular verbs is the same that in the past

Walk - walked - walked
talk- talked- talked
study - studied - studied

REVIEW: If you do not know what are regular and irregular verbs then click here to review the past simple tense (regular ans irregular verbs)

Negative form

S + haven't/ hasn't + past participle + C

I haven't been to Mexico
Jorge hasn't eaten Peruvian ceviche.
They haven't traveled by plane.

Question Form:

QW + have / has + past participle +S + C

Have you ever been to Cusco?
Where have they studied English?
Has Anna ever danced regeaton?


We use present perfect to express and talk about experiences. By this we mean that we do care or want to say when something happened.

I have studied English >>> We do not say when, we just want to express that we have studied English some time in our life.

Ever: We use ever in questions to emphasis on experiences.
Have you ever been to Brazil? = Have you been to Brazil? (We put ever just to emphasis. It is not necessary but very common).

We use PAST SIMPLE if we say when we did something.

I went to Brazil in 1989.

ERROR : I have been to Brazil in 1989 >>> We CANNOT use Present Perfect when we focus on a definite point in the past.

Remember: If we focus on a definite point in the past we USE PAST SIMPLE. If we want to express experience we use PRESENT PERFECT.

Past Continuous (Syntax and USE)

S + [ was / were + -ing] + C

- I was studying
- Carlos was playing video games at Henry's house.
- They were having breakfast

Just add "not" or contract it with the verb to be in the past : wasn't / weren't

- I wasn't watching the football game. I was doing my homework.
- My mother (she) wasn't cooking.
- My brothers (they) weren't dancing at the party.


QW +[ was / were + S + -ing] + C

- Where was John sleeping?
- What were you doing at 6:00pm?
- Who was Patty talking to?

USE: We use past continuous to describe actions that were in progress in the past.
{ estaban, estuve, estuvieron etc... - ando , - endo}

Slangs - Jergas en ingles (e-j)

Jergas - Lista de la (a-d)

: great; excellent. (Maldito - chevere - de la PM)
"Your car is really evil!"

eyepopper: something or someone visibly astounding.
"Wow, that girl is truly an eyepopper!"

: fabulous.
" is really fab!"

face-off: confrontation.
"I think it's time we had a face-off."

fart [offensive]: to expel intestinal gas (Pedo -Pedar)
"It's embarrassing to fart on the first date."

flashback: sudden memory. (un recuerdo)
"In Little Tokyo I had a flashback to my days living in Japan."

flick: movie.
"Let's go out tonight and watch a flick."

fox: attractive, alluring person.
"Is it true that Brad Pitt is a fox?"

freebie: something that does not cost money. (gratis - gratel)
"My trip to New York was a freebie."

French kiss [possibly offensive]: kissing with the tongue. (Beso con lengua)
"Dave's dog is always trying to French kiss him!"

geek: someone who works too hard, is more intelligent than usual, and is slightly unattractive.
"Bill Gates is kind of a geek."

get it: to understand something.
"Sorry, but I just don't get it."

glitch: flaw. (una falla)
"There must be a glitch in this softwware."

go bananas: go slightly mad. (volverse loco)
"This project is causing me to go bananas!"

goof (1): a silly and foolish person. (tonto - tontin)
"What a goof you are!"

goof (2): make a mistake.
I really goofed on the test today."

: silly.
"Kids always make me feel goofy!"

grand: one thousand dollars.
"He's making over a hundred grand a year!"

grass: marijuana.
"Have you ever smoked grass?"

guts : courage. (coraje)
"It took a lot of guts to ask his boss for a raise."

hairy: difficult; dangerous.
"The steep and windy road was really hairy."

: a love bite on the skin. (Chupeton - usualmente en el cuello)
"Wow! Is that a hickey on your neck?"

hooker [possibly offensive]: prostitute.
"You'll find a lot of hookers in the red light district."

horny [possibly offensive]
: sexually stimulated; in the mood for sex.
"Red wine seems to make my boyfriend horny. "

hot (1): popular.
"Brad Pitt is really hot now."

hot (2): sexy.
"Wow! Cindy Crawford is really hot!"

: really big.
"American supermarkets are humungous."

hyper: overly excited.
"Children often get hyper when they are tired."

icky: unpleasant.
"The food is really icky in the school cafeteria."

: identification.
"If you want to order a beer, you'll need your I.D."

I'm outta here
: I'm leaving; I'm departing.
"Sorry, but I'm outta here, dude."

: fashionable.
"Ray-Ban sunglasses are really in now."

jack around [possibly offensive]: waste time.
"Will you please stop jacking around?

jillion: an immense number.
"Do you really have a jillion problems?"

: toilet.
"Where's the john?"

Lista de pronombres - List of pronouns

The following are referred to people object and things
Nota: Estos se refieren a personas u objetos (Sustantivos)

Subject Pronouns

  • I

  • you

  • he

  • she

  • it

  • we

  • you

  • they

Object Pronouns

  • me

  • you

  • him

  • her

  • it

  • us

  • you

  • them

Reflexive Pronouns

  • myself

  • yourself

  • himself

  • herself

  • itself

  • ourselves

  • youselves

  • themselves


These following adjectives refer to POSSESSIONS.

Estos se refieren a poseciones. NO CONFUNDIR

Possessive Adjectives

  • my

  • your

  • his

  • her

  • its

  • our

  • your

  • their

Possessive Pronouns

  • mine

  • yours

  • his

  • hers

  • its

  • ours

  • your

  • theirs

Reflexive Pronouns

These pronouns are :

myself - yourself - himself
herself- itself - ourselves
yourselves - themselves

We use the reflexive pronouns when the subject is the same as the object.

For example:
I hit myself (the subject I is the same as the object)


I hit I
I hit me

Usamos el reflexive pronoun cuando el objeto es igual al sujeto. Muchas veces se traduce como yo mismo, ella misma, ellos mismos etc pero también puede ser tácito como :

I hit myself (Me lastime; tácito yo mismo)
She killed herself (Se mato (tácito ella misma)

You can use reflexive pronouns to describe things that you do without help (algo que haces sin ayuda)

I did my homework (by) myself.
Maria cooked (by) herself.

Cuando lo usen para describir acciones que realizan sin ayuda pueden poner el by antes del reflexive pronoun. Esto es mas común en ingles americano pero es opcional.

Si no has estudiado los object y subject pronouns te recomiendo que los repaces para un mejor entendimiento.


This / That - These / Those

Demonstrative pronouns (this - these / that - those)

Singular (this & that)

This is used to point at something close to you (this es esto / esta)

This is my laptop (I am touching it)
This radio does not work.

That is used to point at something far from you (that es eso / esa)

That jacket is not mine.
That is the best book I have read.

Plural (These / Those)

These (estos - estas) is the plural of this and it is used for close objects or people which are close

These are my favorite shoes.
These books are very old.

Those (esos - esas) is the plural of that and it is used for close objects or people which are far

Those are not my socks.
Those pictures are excellent.

"Used to"

Used to is used to describe routines and habits in the past.

I used to smoke when I was at the University.
Gary used to be fat when he was a little boy.
What did you use to do after school?
I used to play soccer all afternoon.
I didn't use to study for my tests.
Max didn't use to drink, now he drinks too much!


To describe current habits or routines WE USE PRESENT SIMPLE . Please do not use "Use to" in present.

INCORRECT : I use to smoke
CORRECT : I smoke

  • Used to is to describe past routines and also do not confuse with the verb "USE"
I always use my laptop
I never use my husband's things
Mariela uses her credit card on the internet to buy clothes

  • To be + used to + - ing = "Estar acostumbrado" ( ADVANCED STUDENTS!)
I am used to waking up early
Carlos is used to eating very spicy food.
Juan isn't used to Lima's terrible weather
Are you used to dancing?

Remember to use the verb to be before used to and to use the -ing form after the used to.

Ok, Profesor Virtual al rescate. Esto puede ser confuso así que vayamos por partes.

Used to = Solía, Solían, Solíamos etc
Por ende, Used to es para expresar rutinas en el pasado

The verb USE or to use = USAR y todas sus variantes

Present (Verb USE)
I use the computer a lot to write my ESL classes.
I used your radio yesterday and broke it!

Este verbo es un verbo mas y puede usarse en distintos tiempo. No es lo mismo el pasado "used" que el "used to"
Son completamente distintos.

Acá va la información extra:
Existe la formulación (TO BE + Use(d) to+ - ing) y esto es tambien distinto. Esto es para expresar que uno esta acostumbrado.

I am used to going out and have fun with my friends
= Estoy acostumbrado a salir y divertirme con mis amigos

Maria is used to watching tv untill very late
= Maria esta acostumbrada a ver Tele hasta muy tarde

Como ven esta ultima forma "Estar acostumbrado" va con el verbo TO BE antes

Así que tengan cuidado

Used to = Solía
Verbo Use = usar
to be + used to + - ing = Estar acostumbrado

Se que toma es un poco complejo pero la practica hace al maestro.

Possessive pronouns

Possessive Pronouns :mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs
These are used to describe possession and DO NOT confuse with possesive adjectives

my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their
Both refer to possession but the POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS do not need a noun after them.

For example:

Whose radio is that? (Whose = De quien)

It is mine. or It is my radio ---------- Incorrect > It is my. (My necesita de un NOUN)

Is that Pedro's or Sally's car?

It is hers. or It is her car ------------ Incorrect > It is her (Her necesita de un NOUN)

Possessive Pronous Vs Possessive Adjectives


  • my

  • your

  • his

  • her

  • its

  • our

  • your

  • their






  • mine

  • yours

  • his

  • hers

  • its

  • ours

  • yours

  • theirs


No se confundan con estas dos formas de mostrar una posesión. Los posesivos adjetivos REQUIEREN de un sustantivo. MY BOOK, HER PENCIL etc. Es decir: My = mi, her = su de ella, his = su de el etc...

Los posesivos ppronouns no necesitan de un sustantivo (NOUN) This is mine. Es decir : Mine = Mio, = Hers = suyo de ella, Ours = nuestro etc..

Hago lo posible para no traducir porque creo que es mejor y mas fácil aprender las reglas en ingles y de allí si ustedes quieren traducirlo siempre y cuando entiendan el fundamento.

Present Continuous for future plans or arrangements

The present continous is used as we duscussed for activities happening at the moment (CLICK AQUI si no sabes como formar oraciones con presente continuous).

This tense can also be used to describe events or plans in the future that are arranged or fixed.
Common expressions where we use present continuous for future arrangements are:

- tonight, next month (year,week) tomorrow, this weekend etc.


My plane is arriving tonight at about 8:30 pm.
My parents are leaving town tomorrow.
Jack isn't meeting with us next weekend.

Remember: All these sentences can be used with "going to". We use present continuous to simplify the sentence but it is optional

My plane is arriving tonight at about 8:30 pm = My plane is going to arrive tonight at about 8:30.

There is no difference!


What are you doing later?
I am playing soccer.

Is your friend coming to eat with us in the afternoon?
Yes, he is.

NOTA: No quiero que se confundan con este uso del presente continuous. Es una opción en el ingles y es igual que el futuro con going to. Presente continuous solo se puede entender como un futuro si es que hay una frase especifica de un tiempo en el futuro (como tonight, tomorrow etc) Si es que no hay estas phrases se recomienda usar el going to para ser mas claros. Ustedes tienen esta opción de usar cual deseen pero es necesario saber que el presente continuous también puede ser usado como un futuro.

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